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Python Standard Exceptions

Exceptions in Python

exceptions_in_python

All instances in Python must be instances of a class that derives from BaseException. Two exception classes that are not related via subclassing are never equivalent, even if they have the same name. The built-in exceptions can be generated by the interpreter or built-in functions.

Here is a list all the standard Exceptions available in Python −

Sr.No. Exception Name & Description
1

Exception

All built-in, non-system-exiting exceptions are derived from this class. All user-defined exceptions should also be derived from this class.

2

StopIteration

Raised by built-in function next() and an iterator’s __next__() method to signal that there are no further items produced by the iterator.

3

SystemExit

Raised by the sys.exit() function.

4

StandardError

Base class for all built-in exceptions except StopIteration and SystemExit.

5

ArithmeticError

The base class for those built-in exceptions that are raised for various arithmetic errors: OverflowError, ZeroDivisionError, FloatingPointError.

6

OverflowError

Raised when the result of an arithmetic operation is too large to be represented. This cannot occur for integers (which would rather raise MemoryError than give up). However, for historical reasons, OverflowError is sometimes raised for integers that are outside a required range. Because of the lack of standardization of floating point exception handling in C, most floating point operations are not checked.

7

FloatingPointError

Raised when a floating point calculation fails.Not currently used.

8

ZeroDivisionError

Raised when division or modulo by zero takes place for all numeric types.

9

AssertionError

Raised in case of failure of the Assert statement.

assert False, 'The assertion failed'
10

AttributeError

Raised in case of failure of attribute reference or assignment.

11

EOFError

Raised when there is no input from either the raw_input() or input() function and the end of file is reached.

12

ImportError

Raised when an import statement fails.

13

KeyboardInterrupt

Raised when the user interrupts program execution, usually by pressing Ctrl+c.

14

LookupError

Base class for all lookup errors.

15

IndexError

Raised when an index is not found in a sequence.

16

KeyError

Raised when the specified key is not found in the dictionary.

17

NameError

Raised when an identifier is not found in the local or global namespace.

18

UnboundLocalError

Raised when trying to access a local variable in a function or method but no value has been assigned to it.

19

EnvironmentError

Base class for all exceptions that occur outside the Python environment.

20

IOError

Raised when an input/ output operation fails, such as the print statement or the open() function when trying to open a file that does not exist.

21

OSError

Raised for operating system-related errors.

22

SyntaxError

Raised when there is an error in Python syntax.

23

IndentationError

Raised when indentation is not specified properly.

24

SystemError

Raised when the interpreter finds an internal problem, but when this error is encountered the Python interpreter does not exit.

25

SystemExit

Raised when Python interpreter is quit by using the sys.exit() function. If not handled in the code, causes the interpreter to exit.

26

TypeError

Raised when an operation or function is attempted that is invalid for the specified data type.

27

ValueError

Raised when the built-in function for a data type has the valid type of arguments, but the arguments have invalid values specified.

28

RuntimeError

Raised when a generated error does not fall into any category.

29

NotImplementedError

Raised when an abstract method that needs to be implemented in an inherited class is not actually implemented.

Exception hierarchy

The class hierarchy for built-in exceptions is:

BaseException
 +-- SystemExit
 +-- KeyboardInterrupt
 +-- GeneratorExit
 +-- Exception
      +-- StopIteration
      +-- StopAsyncIteration
      +-- ArithmeticError
      |    +-- FloatingPointError
      |    +-- OverflowError
      |    +-- ZeroDivisionError
      +-- AssertionError
      +-- AttributeError
      +-- BufferError
      +-- EOFError
      +-- ImportError
      |    +-- ModuleNotFoundError
      +-- LookupError
      |    +-- IndexError
      |    +-- KeyError
      +-- MemoryError
      +-- NameError
      |    +-- UnboundLocalError
      +-- OSError
      |    +-- BlockingIOError
      |    +-- ChildProcessError
      |    +-- ConnectionError
      |    |    +-- BrokenPipeError
      |    |    +-- ConnectionAbortedError
      |    |    +-- ConnectionRefusedError
      |    |    +-- ConnectionResetError
      |    +-- FileExistsError
      |    +-- FileNotFoundError
      |    +-- InterruptedError
      |    +-- IsADirectoryError
      |    +-- NotADirectoryError
      |    +-- PermissionError
      |    +-- ProcessLookupError
      |    +-- TimeoutError
      +-- ReferenceError
      +-- RuntimeError
      |    +-- NotImplementedError
      |    +-- RecursionError
      +-- SyntaxError
      |    +-- IndentationError
      |         +-- TabError
      +-- SystemError
      +-- TypeError
      +-- ValueError
      |    +-- UnicodeError
      |         +-- UnicodeDecodeError
      |         +-- UnicodeEncodeError
      |         +-- UnicodeTranslateError
      +-- Warning
           +-- DeprecationWarning
           +-- PendingDeprecationWarning
           +-- RuntimeWarning
           +-- SyntaxWarning
           +-- UserWarning
           +-- FutureWarning
           +-- ImportWarning
           +-- UnicodeWarning
           +-- BytesWarning
           +-- ResourceWarning

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Anmol on Apr 19, 2020 at 12:04 am


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